To this day, Egypt argues that the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1929 and its amended version, the 1959 agreement, are still valid. The 1959 agreement signed by Egypt and an independent Sudan brought Egypt`s share to 55.5 billion cubic meters and Sudan`s share to 18.5 billion cubic meters. „To the British government: the British government has already started negotiations with the Ethiopian government on its proposal and we had imagined that the negotiations with us would have been concluded, whether this proposal came into force or not; we never thought that the British government would reach an agreement with another government on our sea. It should be recalled that on 28 February 1922, Great Britain recognized Egypt as an independent sovereign state, with the caveat that certain matters „should remain at the discretion of Her Majesty`s Government until it may be possible, through free discussion and friendly agreements between both parties, to conclude agreements on this matter between Her Majesty`s Government and the Egyptian Government.“ Sudan — the „black country,“ a vast region in southern Egypt, between the 22nd and fifth parallels — was the subject of the fourth of these reservations. This area had been recaptured jointly by Great Britain and Egypt in the campaigns of 1896-8. It is governed by a condominium. The flags of England and Egypt fly side by side. The Egyptians claim that Sudan belongs to them and that it should be admitted to their kingdom. The English deny it. Since the war, Downing Street has fluctuated somewhat in relation to its Egyptian policy. But she remained stubborn and consistent on one point: England will not abandon Sudan. That has not changed. Britain`s willingness to adapt the Nile water issue before Sudan`s fate is resolved, if at all, underlines this. These bilateral agreements have completely ignored the needs of other coastal countries, including Ethiopia, which supplies between 70 and 80 per cent of the Nile`s waters.
As a result, none of the other countries in the Nile basin ever approved the agreement. Addis Ababa says the river will be slightly diverted, but will then be able to follow its natural course. The first agreement was reached between Great Britain as a colonial power in East Africa and Egypt. Cairo has been favoured over other riparian countries as an important agricultural asset. In addition, the Suez Canal, managed by Egypt, was essential to British imperial ambitions. But the balagh, the Wafd spokesman, as it is now called in opposition, took a completely different view and published on 18 May a lengthy critique of the agreement. Parliament was not in session when the agreement was signed, so there are no decisive ways to say what Fellah thinks about the case. However, a passionate analysis seems to show that the agreement, perfect or imperfect, takes a significant step forward in the creation of healthy Anglo-Egyptian relations and registers a net profit for Egypt. The letters exchanged on 7 May 1929 reserved for England and Egypt „total freedom in all negotiations“ of an agreement on Sudan and similar issues. Egyptian statesmen can therefore reopen the issue of Nile water and will be able to discuss it without the sworn enemy of hunger staring at them.
This correspondence is not followed by the arrest of Sudan`s so-called „gezira“ development. What the agreement stresses is that the black country must subordinate its demands to those of Egypt. The latter country has the right to meet its needs from the „untified“ waters of the Nile.